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Linux Filesystem Structure Explained

The Linux File System Structure Explained

The Linux File System Structure Explained

When I started researching Linux after leaving Windows, I found the Linux filesystem structure quite perplexing, simply because I had never known anything other than the Windows file system.

With perseverance through the learning curve, the mystery was revealed, and I can now switch between Linux and Windows whenever necessary. I understand the Windows file system better now after studying the Linux filesystem.

The most significant difference between the two file systems is determining where the file system’s root begins. In Windows, the root starts with the drive letter, generally C:, which indicates it starts with the hard disc. However, in Linux, the filesystem’s root does not correlate to a physical device or location; it is a logical position of just “/”. For a visual representation, see the graphics below.

​Linux Filesystem Structure Tree

Image Courtesy –

​Windows File System Tree

Another thing to remember is that everything in Linux is a file. Alternatively, everything is shown as a file, whereas in Windows it may be displayed as a hard drive.

In Windows, for example, the hard drive is commonly represented as C: in the file explorer, and it will even display a small symbol of the hard drive and the amount of space that is being used. In Linux, however, the hard disc is simply represented as /dev/sda, which is really just a directory, which in Linux is really just a file that points to other files.

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So here are some more concrete examples. The Linux counterpart of your Windows Documents folder is /home/username/Documents, but in Windows it’s usually C:UsersUserNameDocuments. These are indeed quite similar, but the differences are clear.

So, using the above Linux file system chart, we must study what each folder in the Linux file system is for in order to gain a better understanding of how Linux works in general. It should be noted that not every folder described here or illustrated above is present in every Linux distribution, but the vast majority of them are.

You can do further study online and dive deeper to learn more about specific programmes and usage of each of the above-mentioned folders, but for the average everyday home user, your /home folder is usually the only one with which you’ll be directly engaging.

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If you’re troubleshooting, you may need to go into the other files, although most current Linux distributions automatically maintain these folders and require little to no user intervention.


To reiterate my prior assertion, the Linux file system is a logical rather than a physical system. Separate folders in the system may be on different partitions of the disc, or even on different discs entirely, but everything is still logically in the same place.

The simplest approach to absorb this concept is to just use Linux as your everyday driver, as immersion is the greatest way to learn. For this task, Ubuntu or Linux Mint are probably the best options. After a while of using the Linux file system, everything will click and you’ll grasp what’s going on.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Linux Filesystem Hierarchy?

The Linux Filesystem Hierarchy is a standardized directory structure used by Linux systems to organize and manage files and directories. The hierarchy defines the system’s location, configuration, user, and program files.

Is Linux a Ext4 filesystem?

No, Linux is not an Ext4 filesystem. Linux is an operating system kernel, while Ext4 is a file system used by many Linux distributions.

What is the best filesystem for Linux?

There is no single “best” file system for Linux, as the best choice depends on the system’s specific use case and requirements.

Ext4 is a commonly used and well-supported file system for general-purpose desktop and server installations that provides good performance, reliability, and compatibility with most Linux distributions. It is also backwards-compatible with its predecessor, Ext3.

For high-performance servers and storage systems, XFS is a popular choice due to its scalable design, high-performance capabilities, and support for large files and volumes. It is particularly well-suited for use cases such as big data analytics and high-performance computing.

What is the difference between XFS and Ext4?

XFS and Ext4 are both popular file systems used in Linux systems, but there are some differences between them –

Scalability: XFS is designed to scale well on larger storage devices, supporting volumes up to 16 exabytes. In contrast, Ext4 is better suited for smaller storage devices.

Metadata handling: XFS uses a B+ tree to store file system metadata, allowing faster metadata lookups and more efficient space usage. Ext4, on the other hand, uses an indexed extensible hash table, which is less efficient than the B+ tree used by XFS.

Journaling: XFS uses a write-ahead log (WAL) for journaling, which separates metadata updates from data updates, allowing for better performance and faster recovery times. Ext4, on the other hand, uses a journaling mode that writes both data and metadata to the journal, which can slow down performance.

Fragmentation: XFS is less susceptible to fragmentation than Ext4, which can result in slower performance over time.
Compatibility: Ext4 is more widely supported by Linux distributions and is the default file system for many of them, while XFS is less widely used.

Overall, XFS is better suited for larger storage devices and high-performance computing, while Ext4 is better suited for general-purpose computing and is more widely supported by Linux distributions.

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